The forbidden substance was found after a game against RB Leipzig on November 30st. A- and B-sample were positive. German football federation DFB wants to deal with the case in a hearing next Monday. According to ARD the positive sample was caused by a cortisone-containing ointment. Athletes need therapeutic use exemptions from a national doping agency to use these sort of creams. His club 1. Maybe they reference to a missing use exemption. Physicians use cortisone to treat pain and heal wounds.
Athletes can use it for muscle gain and better regeneration — especially in combination with other substances. In the 70s and 80s cortisone was one of the most used doping products. On October 25th Marque tore his muscle. The game against RB Leipzig, where he tested positive, was on November 31st. Now we dig a little deeper and are going to analyse the various systems.
We kick it off with Portugal. A minimum of two matches of the first division Liga ZON Sagres and one match of the second division Liga2 Cabovisao will be drawn every match day. There are only three out-of-competition tests per team in the first division and two per team in the second division over the whole season. Only two thirds of the 1. Concerning to Luis Horta, especially amateurs get caught. Horta says, there are quite a lot tests in football. He believes that the rate of positive tests would rise the less tests are carried out.
The testing system discourages many footballers, writes Horta. However, Horta is well aware of the amount of money as well as the various interests that are present in football. Due to privacy laws Horta refuses to hand out more information about the positive tests like the age of the player or the substance he was tested positive for.
Without that itemisation we are not able to give a more profound analyses of those doping cases. Blood testing only take splace out-of-competition, but the numbers are almost ridiculous. As in Germany the players are not asked for a blood test after matches. In , the Lisbon lab only analysed 42 urin samples for EPO. In our opinion, that is far too little concerning the popularity of the substance. However, there is something that works better than in Germany.
Navigation and service
All players of the first and second division are obliged to name a time slot of 60 minutes to be available for testing outside the usual training. Competition testing costs about That means the federation has full control over the amount of testing. The more they pay, the more testing there is. At least out-of-competition testing Right now, there is not enough in-competition testing.
The main focus in-competition testing with 75 per cent of the tests carried out there. Between match days there is a lot of opportunity to manipulate.
Wiktionary:Frequency lists/German subtitles - Wiktionary
Just before the world cup two players were banned from the national team after positive tests. WADA wanted to ban Assis with the standard period of two years. Are you an expert on Portuguese football? Do you have further information on the national testing system? Do you know players, managers, coaches, doctors or other persons in Portuguese football that we should take a closer look on? We are also going to analyse the bigger European football nations in the upcoming weeks. We gladly welcome any support fort the analyses. If you prefer to contact us anonymously we offer a encrypted data transfer one the upper right side of this page.
To bring you up to speed, we put together a chronology of the Marque case from the positive test to the verdict.
Marque is asked to deliver a urin sample after the match against RB Leipzig. A week later, the lab informs the DFB about the positive test. The cortisone product is free to be used in training, but can only be applied in competition with a medical exemption. Marque was not able to present such an exemption. The player asks for the B-sample to be analysed. The doping lab in Kreischa confirms the result of the A-sample. Both samples are positive for a cortisone product.
The DFB announces it has banned Marque for six matches.
Already in , the DFB had to deal with two other cases involving a similar cortisone product. However, we think there are more questions in need to be answered. Here are some of the questions answers below :. As it happens: Read our first story about this doping case. Every evening, an airplane leaves Sao Paulo to head to Lausanne.
More than 20 of those long flights are scheduled. Meanwhile, FIFA has admitted its solution could cause serious logistic problems. The biggest problem is caused by the limited time the Lausanne lab has to analyse the samples. So we also handed in a request.
We were keen on getting more information about those doping flights and asked for a flight schedule. However, FIFA refused to hand us those details. So we decided to do the maths ourselves and took a look at the flight route and the probable time it takes to analyse the samples. After every match, two players of each team are going to be tested.
As evening matches end between 5 and 6pm local time and players often need a little while to be able to give a urin sample, it is fair to say this whole process takes up to four hours.
The evolution of the series.
That means the samples will leave the stadium at around 10pm. Yet across the EU, illiberal political forces are on the rise. They advocate doing away with refugee law and asylum altogether. The scramble for a solution is producing dangerous and doomed proposals, such as the erection of a new iron curtain in the Balkans north of Greece.
The very future of the international asylum system is at stake. The Samsom proposal represents a practical and humane solution.
At present, the prospect of obtaining protection in Germany is encouraging refugees to take to boats and risk their lives on the Aegean. Samsom suggests replacing this humanitarian disaster with an orderly process that would enable refugees to reach Europe without risking their lives. The goal is to render the hazardous journey unnecessary. But for this to work, it needs to be accompanied by measures that close off the route through Greece. Instead, AI rejects the proposal from the outset, without analysing it or taking a closer look, based on a number of wrong assumptions and factual and legal errors:.
Under Greek legislation, the rejected applicant can then lodge an administrative appeal against the inadmissibility decision within 15 days  and has a right to remain in Greece until she is notified of the final decision. However, the court appeal has no suspensive effect; the applicant is still obliged to leave.
All of this is lawful. For anyone concerned about human rights and respect for international law, the appalling status quo should be the starting point. For countries like Germany to welcome refugees, but only after a horrendous journey across Europe, is morally untenable. Europe has unwittingly created a Darwinian system where desperate refugees have to risk their lives in order to improve their situation. We can and must do better. We need to put in place an orderly process in place of the current humanitarian catastrophe.
This should be developed by governments, think-tanks and refugee and human rights NGOs, working urgently and in cooperation. It is also profoundly unhelpful for AI to ignore the challenge of maintaining a political consensus in favour of helping the refugees. The values of compassion for refugees and respect for international law, which AI has for decades upheld so valiantly, are under threat in Europe.