Guide Reconstruction in the Cane Fields: From Slavery to Free Labor in Louisianas Sugar Parishes, 1862–1882

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Dan T. Columbia, : See also, Linda C. Ferguson was born and raised in the strongly pro-Union Clinton County, Kentucky, but soon after the war started, the strongly pro-Confederate Ferguson moved his family to the pro-Confederate stronghold of White County, Tennessee, which became the base of operations for his raids into Clinton County and into Fentress County, TN.

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Guerrilla activity was so strong in the White Co. As the most widely-known of local guerrilla leaders, Ferguson probably got the blame for more mayhem than he actually carried out, but what he carried out was plenty bad enough. Don't you beg, and don't you dodge. Ferguson was notorious for killing captives after their surrender, which was actually common on both sides.

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It may be that his biggest mistake was shooting wounded Union Lt. Elza Smith in the head while he lay captured in a Confederate hospital, even though Smith may have been involved in a similar execution of one of Ferguson's comrades earlier. Ferguson had surrendered thinking that the general amnesty for Confederate soldiers included him.

He was wrong; as the most prominent and well-known Confederate guerrilla in the region, he was anathema to Union forces. No paperwork confirmed that Ferguson was officially in the Confederate army, so despite testimony by Joe Wheeler that Ferguson had served under him as a captain of cavalry scouts, the military tribunal found that his actions had been those of a murderer rather than a soldier, found him guilty of over 50 counts of murder he had been accused of over a hundred , and sentenced him to death by hanging.

On Reconstruction, see also Edward L. Ayers, What Caused the Civil War? Poem by Randolph. Debby E. Fake , Summary Report n. Commissioners interviewed and re-interviewed witnesses; two special agents went to investigate. Courtesy of Professor Christopher Waldrep. Ferguson Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Co. Joe M. Lyman Abbot, Rev. Canfield, Rev. Frothingham, Francis R. Georgia and Florida singers. Richardson, Christian Reconstruction, p.

See also, James D. See also,. Leon F. Knopf, , pp. See also, Dan T. Carter, When the War Was Over, pp. Callaham story. Hammond, September 3, , J.

“From Slavery to Freedom in Louisiana`s Sugar Country: Changing

Hammond Papers, South Caroliniana Library. Oxford University Press, , p. Senate Exec. Gorn, and Peter W.


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Stampp and Leon F. Litwack, eds. Lincoln changed his mind and agreed with George Julian re land distribution. Union troops arrived in November Savannah, Ga. Southern Homestead Act. Donald R. Michael I.

South Carolina Land Commission. Carol K. Farming communities.

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Historians who assume that African Americans came out Reconstruction as they went in, landless and poverty stricken, miss an important dimension. Against overwhelming odds, within one generation after the Civil War, a remarkable one out of every five black household heads achieved their dream of land ownership in the American South.


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A few even achieved a degree of prosperity and wealth that matched and exceeded neighboring white land owners. With a program of justice and assistance, one can only imagined what might have been achieved. This property-owning class provided the basis for a later generation of leaders and an emerging middle class of African Americans. Although the numbers reported in the text are all taken from the careful study of Schweninger, I also analyzed the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series IPUMS 1 in hundred sample for the United States, available from the University of Minnesota Population Center which was not available at the time Schweninger did his important analysis.

See Tables John Eaton. Last accessed June 1, Walker to R. Scott, Annual Report for , citing Brvt. Major Wm. Stone, Oct. Lancaster to B. Scott, Annual Report for , both vol. Freedman Henry Adams. Washington, D.

Knopf, , esp. Part II. Lancaster to R. See also ms. Jonathan Jasper Wright. Clay Smith, Jr. Lewis Burke, eds. It was reprinted from the original publication in the Cincinnati Commercial. This remarkable letter was reprinted in books throughout the years, first in Lydia Maria Child, ed.

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The black historian Carter G. The letter was rediscovered by Leon F. I with my former Ph. New York: Worth Publishers, I have often felt uneasy about you. I thought the Yankees would have hung you long before this for harboring Rebs they found at your house. I suppose they never heard about your going to Col. Martin's to kill the Union soldier that was left by his company in their stable.

Whitney Plantation museum confronts painful history of slavery

Although you shot at me twice before I left you, I did not want to hear of your being hurt, and am glad you are still living. Give my love to them all, and tell them I hope we will meet in the better world, if not in this. I would have gone back to see you all when I was working in the Nashville hospital, but one of the neighbors told me Henry intended to shoot me if he ever got a chance.