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Kim, Th. However, it is very difficult to determine the characteristics of the electron beam of interest. For example, 1 manufacturers do not provide standardized information about the initial electron beam, 2 the electron beam in the vacuum head cannot be directly measured, and 3 electron beams differ even when produced by the same model and also differ because of the aging effect [ 9 — 11 ].
To address these issues, indirect beam commissioning has been employed. This approach modifies various parameters of the initial electron beam to match the simulated MC beam quality with the measured quality by comparing the percent depth dose PDD and the lateral beam profile [ 9 ]. In previous studies for LINAC beam commissioning, initial beam spot size and mean electron energy [ 12 ] were chosen empirically by matching the simulated beam to the measurement by changing the electron characteristics [ 13 , 14 ].
While this simple method is the most commonly used method in beam commissioning [ 12 — 14 ], the results and conclusions reached with this method depend significantly on the researcher. To accurately and efficiently determine the characteristics of the electron beam, it is important to understand the relationship between the initial electron and the following Bremsstrahlung photon. This relationship is affected by the treatment head and is used as a decision-making standard during beam commissioning.
Tzedakis et al. Moreover, precise modeling of the multileaf collimator MLC , which determines the fluence map, is difficult without Geant4 because of the complex geometry of this instrument. The purpose of this study was to simplify the beam commissioning procedure and develop an accurate and efficient process for determining the optimal parameters for MC commissioning. To this end, the dose distributions, PDD values, and lateral profiles of the Varian Clinac IX machine were evaluated according to the characteristics of the initial electron beam using the Geant4 toolkit.
Materials and Methods 1. The major components of the LINAC head, including the target, primary collimator, Beryllium window, flattening filter, ion chamber, mirror, jaws, and MLC, were modeled as shown in Figure 1. To achieve detailed modeling of the treatment head, blueprint supported by the machine vender was used as the reference when modeling the geometry.
Evaluation of the dosimetric effect according to initial electron beam parameters To investigate the influence of a mean energy, b radial intensity distribution, and c energy spread on curve attributes such as depth of the maximum dose d max on the PDD and profile dose flatness, the PDDs and lateral dose profiles were calculated and analyzed with different initial electron beam conditions.
To evaluate only the influence of the mean electron energy on the dose distribution, the pencil beam was used, and the standard deviation of the energy was set to zero. The electron distribution was assumed to have a two-dimensional 2-D Gaussian distribution, as suggested by the Keall et al.
In this study, the distributions of the initial electrons generating the bremsstrahlung photon in the target were defined [ 17 ]. Karzmark et al. To assess the effect of electron beam radial width, the mean electron energy and energy spread were fixed at 6 MeV and 0 MeV, respectively. A pencil beam was used, and the mean electron energy was set to 6 MeV. The reference conditions of the initial electron beam were set to a mean energy of 6 MeV, a radial intensity of 0 mm at the FWHM, and an energy spread of 0 MeV.
The simulated PDDs and profiles were normalized to the dose values at d max and the distribution center, respectively. The PDD was assessed at 2 mm intervals at depths ranging from 0 to 50 mm to observe the dose distribution in build-up region and dose distribution nearby d max. For depths greater than 50 mm, the depth dose was assessed at 15 mm intervals for depths greater than 50 mm to reduce the statistical fluctuation. The depth before d max was not considered in the PDD comparison for treatment beam modeling because electron equilibrium was not reached, and statistically significant fluctuation occurs in that region.
Moreover, electron contamination affects the dose distribution before d max.blacksmithsurgical.com/t3-assets/spirituality/the-harvard-classics-shelf.php
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Also, high statistical error caused in the simulation because of the beam collimators such as jaws and the MLC. The relative dose difference was calculated to evaluate the PDD and lateral profile values. The relative dose difference was determined as follows:. To reduce the calculation time, variance reduction techniques were applied to components of the LINAC head, e.
In addition, the phase space files containing information on the particles reaching the MLC position, direction, kinetic energy, and particle type were used to reduce the simulation time. The photon beam produced by more than 2.